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Chemical and Biological Process Development

Andrew Schmidt

Andrew Schmidt

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Andy Schmidt's research interests include separations processing, hydrothermal processing and biomass conversion. At PNNL, his work in these areas has ranged from individual contributor and design engineer to flowsheet development, project feasibility and development and project management for industrial clients as well as Hanford Site contractors. Mr. Schmidt has made several contributions to the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment System and to optimization testing and process start-up in support of the solution stabilization processing (magnesium hydroxide and oxalate precipitation) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). For the K Basin projects, his work has included sampling and characterizing radioactive sludge samples, developing process testing strategies; preparing and overseeing process testing with radioactive and simulant materials; developing safety and design basis documents; and full-scale prototype equipment testing. For PFP, he has conducted process evaluation, safety analyses, planning, and testing. His work in the bioprocessing area has included developing and testing a process for the hydrolysis (hydrothermal and enzymatic) of corn and wheat fiber for the production of monosaccharides; and hydrothermal processing of industrial and municipal sludges for waste volume reduction. Mr. Schmidt served as a project manager and process engineer for the destruction of PCBs and dioxin using the Based Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) process. This process received an R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine in 1992, and was recognized in 1993 with a Popular Science Award for Environmental Technology.

PNNL Patents

Education and Credentials

  • M.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, 1987
  • B.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, 1986

PNNL Publications


  • Edmundson SJ, MH Huesemann, R Kruk, TL Lemmon, JM Billing, AJ Schmidt, and DB Anderson. 2017. "Phosphorus and Nitrogen Recycle Following Algal Bio-crude Production via Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction." Algal Research 26:415-421.  doi:10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.016
  • Elliott DC, AJ Schmidt, TR Hart, and JM Billing. 2017. "Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace." Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 7(4):455-465.  doi:10.1007/s13399-017-0264-8
  • He Y, X Li, X Xue, MS Swita, AJ Schmidt, and B Yang. 2017. "Biological Conversion of the Aqueous Wastes from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae and Pine Wood by Rhodococci." Bioresource Technology 224:457-464.  doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.059
  • Jarvis JM, JM Billing, RT Hallen, AJ Schmidt, and T Schaub. 2017. "Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil." Energy and Fuels 31(3):2896-2906.  doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b03022



  • Stephenson DE, CH Delegard, and AJ Schmidt. 2015. Evaluation of Settler Tank Thermal Stability during Solidification and Disposition to ERDFPNNL-24200; 53451-RPT21, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Elliott DC, P Biller, A Ross, AJ Schmidt, and SB Jones. 2015. "Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process." Bioresource Technology 178:147-156.  doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.09.132


  • Zhu Y, MJ Biddy, SB Jones, DC Elliott, and AJ Schmidt. 2014. "Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading." Applied Energy 129:384-394.  doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.053
  • Delegard CH, SI Sinkov, JW Chenault, AJ Schmidt, TL Welsh, and KN Pool. 2014. "Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 299(3):1871-1882.  doi:10.1007/s10967-013-2884-1
  • Fiskum SK, MR Smoot, and AJ Schmidt. 2014. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014PNNL-23416, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Jones SB, Y Zhu, DB Anderson, RT Hallen, DC Elliott, AJ Schmidt, KO Albrecht, TR Hart, MG Butcher, C Drennan, LJ Snowden-Swan, R Davis, and C Kinchin. 2014. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and UpgradingPNNL-23227, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Jones SB, Y Zhu, LJ Snowden-Swan, D Anderson, RT Hallen, AJ Schmidt, KO Albrecht, and DC Elliott. 2014. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of TechnologyPNNL-23867, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 
  • Sudasinghe N, JR Cort, RT Hallen, MV Olarte, AJ Schmidt, and T Schaub. 2014. "Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry." Fuel 137:60-69.  doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2014.07.069


  • Elliott DC, TR Hart, AJ Schmidt, GG Neuenschwander, LJ Rotness, Jr, MV Olarte, AH Zacher, KO Albrecht, RT Hallen, and JE Holladay. 2013. "Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor ." Algal Research 2(4):445-454. 
  • Fountain MS, SK Fiskum, DL Baldwin, RC Daniel, SJ Bos, CA Burns, CD Carlson, DS Coffey, CH Delegard, MK Edwards, LR Greenwood, D Neiner, BM Oliver, KN Pool, AJ Schmidt, RW Shimskey, SI Sinkov, LA Snow, CZ Soderquist, CJ Thompson, TLT Trang-Le, and MW Urie. 2013. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210PNNL-20650 Rev. 2, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. 















Chemical and Biological Process Development

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