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Chemical and Biological Process Development

Andrew Schmidt

Andrew Schmidt

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352

Biography

Andy Schmidt's research interests include separations processing, hydrothermal processing and biomass conversion. At PNNL, his work in these areas has ranged from individual contributor and design engineer to flowsheet development, project feasibility and development and project management for industrial clients as well as Hanford Site contractors. Mr. Schmidt has made several contributions to the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment System and to optimization testing and process start-up in support of the solution stabilization processing (magnesium hydroxide and oxalate precipitation) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). For the K Basin projects, his work has included sampling and characterizing radioactive sludge samples, developing process testing strategies; preparing and overseeing process testing with radioactive and simulant materials; developing safety and design basis documents; and full-scale prototype equipment testing. For PFP, he has conducted process evaluation, safety analyses, planning, and testing. His work in the bioprocessing area has included developing and testing a process for the hydrolysis (hydrothermal and enzymatic) of corn and wheat fiber for the production of monosaccharides; and hydrothermal processing of industrial and municipal sludges for waste volume reduction. Mr. Schmidt served as a project manager and process engineer for the destruction of PCBs and dioxin using the Based Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) process. This process received an R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine in 1992, and was recognized in 1993 with a Popular Science Award for Environmental Technology.

PNNL Patents

Education and Credentials

  • M.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, 1987
  • B.S., Chemical Engineering, Washington State University, 1986

PNNL Publications

2019

  • Collett J.R., J.M. Billing, P.A. Meyer, A.J. Schmidt, A.B. Remington, E. Hawley, and B.A. Hofstad, et al. 2019. "Renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction of oleaginous yeast and residual lignin from bioconversion of corn stover." Applied Energy 233. PNNL-SA-133222. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.115

2018

  • Jarvis J.M., J.M. Billing, Y.E. Corilo, A.J. Schmidt, R.T. Hallen, and T. Schaub. 2018. "FT-ICR MS Analysis of Pine-Algal HTL Biocrude Blends." Fuel 216. PNNL-SA-128145. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2017.12.016
  • Marrone P.A., D.C. Elliott, J.M. Billing, R.T. Hallen, T.R. Hart, P. Kadota, and J.C. Moeller, et al. 2018. "Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels." Water Environment Research 90, no. 4:329-342. PNNL-SA-131515. doi:10.2175/106143017X15131012152861

2017

  • Edmundson S.J., M.H. Huesemann, R. Kruk, T.L. Lemmon, J.M. Billing, A.J. Schmidt, and D.B. Anderson. 2017. "Phosphorus and Nitrogen Recycle Following Algal Bio-crude Production via Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction." Algal Research 26. PNNL-SA-124518. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2017.07.016
  • Elliott D.C., A.J. Schmidt, T.R. Hart, and J.M. Billing. 2017. "Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace." Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery 7, no. 4:455-465. PNNL-SA-121004. doi:10.1007/s13399-017-0264-8
  • He Y., X. Li, X. Xue, M.S. Swita, A.J. Schmidt, and B. Yang. 2017. "Biological Conversion of the Aqueous Wastes from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae and Pine Wood by Rhodococci." Bioresource Technology 224. PNNL-SA-121581. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2016.10.059
  • Jarvis J.M., J.M. Billing, R.T. Hallen, A.J. Schmidt, and T. Schaub. 2017. "Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil." Energy and Fuels 31, no. 3:2896-2906. PNNL-SA-127214. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b03022
  • Marrone P.A., D.C. Elliott, J.M. Billing, R.T. Hallen, T.R. Hart, P. Kadota, and J.C. Moeller, et al. 2017. "Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids." In Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, (WEFTEC 2017), September 30 - October 4, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, 3032-3061. Alexandria, Virginia:Water Environment Federation. PNNL-SA-127937. doi:10.2175/193864717822157702
  • Snowden-Swan L.J., Y. Zhu, M.D. Bearden, T.E. Seiple, S.B. Jones, A.J. Schmidt, and J.M. Billing, et al. 2017. Conceptual Biorefinery Design and Research Targeted for 2022: Hydrothermal Liquefacation Processing of Wet Waste to Fuels. PNNL-27186. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2016

  • Albrecht K.O., Y. Zhu, A.J. Schmidt, J.M. Billing, T.R. Hart, S.B. Jones, and G.D. Maupin, et al. 2016. "Impact of Heterotrophically Stressed Algae for Biofuel Production via Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Catalytic Hydrotreating in Continuous-Flow Reactors." Algal Research 14. PNNL-SA-112594. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2015.12.008
  • Jarvis J.M., N. Sudasinghe, K.O. Albrecht, A.J. Schmidt, R.T. Hallen, D.B. Anderson, and J.M. Billing, et al. 2016. "Impact of Iron Porphyrin Complexes when Hydroprocessing Algal HTL Biocrude." Fuel 182. PNNL-SA-116699. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2016.05.107
  • Snowden-Swan L.J., Y. Zhu, S.B. Jones, D.C. Elliott, A.J. Schmidt, R.T. Hallen, and J.M. Billing, et al. 2016. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis. PNNL-25464. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Snowden-Swan L.J., Y. Zhu, S.B. Jones, D.C. Elliott, A.J. Schmidt, R.T. Hallen, and J.M. Billing, et al. 2016. Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge: A Preliminary Techno-Economic Analysis Rev.1. PNNL-25464 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2015

  • Elliott D.C., P. Biller, A. Ross, A.J. Schmidt, and S.B. Jones. 2015. "Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process." Bioresource Technology 178. PNNL-SA-105391. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.09.132
  • Stephenson D.E., C.H. Delegard, and A.J. Schmidt. 2015. Evaluation of Settler Tank Thermal Stability during Solidification and Disposition to ERDF. PNNL-24200; 53451-RPT21. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2014

  • Delegard C.H., S.I. Sinkov, J.W. Chenault, A.J. Schmidt, T.L. Welsh, and K.N. Pool. 2014. "Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution." Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 299, no. 3:1871-1882. PNNL-SA-98330. doi:10.1007/s10967-013-2884-1
  • Fiskum S.K., M.R. Smoot, and A.J. Schmidt. 2014. STP K Basin Sludge Sample Archive at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory FY2014. PNNL-23416. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Jones S.B., Y. Zhu, D.B. Anderson, R.T. Hallen, D.C. Elliott, A.J. Schmidt, and K.O. Albrecht, et al. 2014. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading. PNNL-23227. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Jones S.B., Y. Zhu, L.J. Snowden-Swan, D. Anderson, R.T. Hallen, A.J. Schmidt, and K.O. Albrecht, et al. 2014. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology. PNNL-23867. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Sudasinghe N., J.R. Cort, R.T. Hallen, M.V. Olarte, A.J. Schmidt, and T. Schaub. 2014. "Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry." Fuel 137. PNNL-SA-102800. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2014.07.069
  • Zhu Y., M.J. Biddy, S.B. Jones, D.C. Elliott, and A.J. Schmidt. 2014. "Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading." Applied Energy 129. PNNL-SA-90421. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.053

2013

  • Elliott D.C., T.R. Hart, A.J. Schmidt, G.G. Neuenschwander, L.J. Rotness, M.V. Olarte, and A.H. Zacher, et al. 2013. "Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor." Algal Research 2, no. 4:445-454. PNNL-SA-96121.
  • Fountain M.S., S.K. Fiskum, D.L. Baldwin, R.C. Daniel, S.J. Bos, C.A. Burns, and C.D. Carlson, et al. 2013. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210. PNNL-20650 Rev. 2. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2012

  • Berglin E.J., C.W. Enderlin, and A.J. Schmidt. 2012. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction. PNNL-21981. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Sinkov S.I., C.H. Delegard, A.J. Schmidt, and J.W. Chenault. 2012. Characteristics of STP Pre-2004 Archived KE Basin Sludge Samples Before and After Re-Jarring in the RPL - April 2012. PNNL-21836. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2011

  • Braley J.C., S.I. Sinkov, C.H. Delegard, and A.J. Schmidt. 2011. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests. PNNL-20070. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Burns C.A., M.L. Luna, and A.J. Schmidt. 2011. Characterization of Settler Tank, KW Container and KE Container Sludge Simulants. PNNL-18408 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, and J.W. Chenault. 2011. Characteristics of KE Basin Sludge Samples Archived in the RPL - 2007. PNNL-17078 Rev 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, and J.W. Chenault. 2011. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer. PNNL-20977. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., S.I. Sinkov, A.J. Schmidt, R.C. Daniel, and C.A. Burns. 2011. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume. PNNL-20100; 53451-RPT13. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Onishi Y., E.B. Baer, J. Chun, S.T. Yokuda, A.J. Schmidt, S. Sande, and W.C. Buchmiller. 2011. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength. PNNL-20048; 53451-RPT14 Rev 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Sinkov S.I., C.H. Delegard, and A.J. Schmidt. 2011. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms. PNNL-20455; 53451-RPT15, Rev 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2010

  • Gauglitz P.A., W.C. Buchmiller, J.W. Jenks, J. Chun, R.L. Russell, A.J. Schmidt, and M.M. Mastor. 2010. The Disruption of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles with Sloped Fins in Flat-Bottom and 2:1 Elliptical-Bottom Vessels. PNNL-19345 Rev 0. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Onishi Y., S.T. Yokuda, and A.J. Schmidt. 2010. Evaluation of Shear Strength Threshold of Concern for Retrieval of Interim-Stored K-Basin Sludge in the Hanford Site. PNNL-19946. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Sinkov S.I., C.H. Delegard, and A.J. Schmidt. 2010. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge. PNNL-19135. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2009

  • Burns C.A., M. Luna, and A.J. Schmidt. 2009. Characterization of Settler Tank and KW Container Sludge Simulants. PNNL-18408. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Burns C.A., R.C. Daniel, C.W. Enderlin, M. Luna, and A.J. Schmidt. 2009. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants. PNNL-18479. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., and A.J. Schmidt. 2009. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices. PNNL-17815 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2008

  • Delegard C.H., and A.J. Schmidt. 2008. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices. PNNL-17815. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., S.I. Sinkov, A.J. Schmidt, and J.W. Chenault. 2008. Uranium Metal Analysis via Selective Dissolution. PNNL-17800. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Sinkov S.I., C.H. Delegard, and A.J. Schmidt. 2008. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. PNNL-17678. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2007

  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, and A.P. Poloski. 2007. Test Plan: Sludge Treatment Project Corrosion Process Chemistry Follow-on Testing. PNNL-16776. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, and B.M. Thornton. 2007. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions. PNNL-16496. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., and A.H. Zacher. 2007. Composition and Technical Basis for K Basin Settler Sludge Simulant for Inspection, Retrieval, and Pump Testing. PNNL-16619 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2006

  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, K.N. Pool, and B.M. Thornton. 2006. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin. PNNL-15939 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, K.N. Pool, and B.M. Thornton. 2006. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin. PNNL-15939. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., B.E. Schmitt, and A.J. Schmidt. 2006. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions. PNNL-16018. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J. 2006. Water Clarity Simulant for K East Basin Filtration Testing. PNNL-15615. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Scott P.A., J.S. Fruchter, J.E. Szecsody, A.J. Schmidt, G.B. Mellinger, R.D. Scheele, and R.W. Shimskey, et al. 2006. "Overview of Technologies and Innovations Being Developed for Fluor Hanford Projects at the Hanford Site." In 2006 Waste Management Symposium: Global Accomplishments in Environmental and Radioactive Waste Management:Education and Opportunity for the Next Generation of Waste Management Professionals. Tucson, Arizona:Arizona Board of Regents. PNNL-SA-47610.

2005

  • Delegard C.H., A.P. Poloski, A.J. Schmidt, and J.W. Chenault. 2005. Characterization of Compaction and Dryout Properties of KE Basin Sludge During Long-Term Storage. PNNL-15092. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2004

  • Bryan S.A., C.H. Delegard, A.J. Schmidt, R.L. Sell, K.L. Silvers, S.R. Gano, and B.M. Thornton. 2004. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing. PNNL-13446 Rev. 1. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, and J.W. Chenault. 2004. Mechanical Properties of K Basin Sludge Constituents and Their Surrogates. PNNL-14947. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, R.L. Sell, S.I. Sinkov, and S.A. Bryan. 2004. Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basins Sludge and Grouted Sludge Waste Forms. PNNL-14733. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., A.J. Schmidt, R.L. Sell, S.I. Sinkov, S.A. Bryan, S.R. Gano, and B.M. Thornton. 2004. Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms. PNNL-14811. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Mellinger G.B., C.H. Delegard, A.J. Schmidt, and G.J. Sevigny. 2004. Evaluation and Recommendation of Waste Form and Packaging for Disposition of the K East Basin North Loadout Pit Sludge. PNNL-14741. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Mellinger G.B., C.H. Delegard, M.A. Gerber, B.N. Naft, A.J. Schmidt, and T.L. Walton. 2004. Disposition Options for Hanford Site K-Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel Sludge. PNNL-14729. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., and M.R. Elmore. 2004. Interim Report on Uranium Metal Segregation Testing. PNNL-14731. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., M.R. Elmore, and C.H. Delegard. 2004. Segregation of Uranium Metal from K Basin Sludge: Results from Vendor Testing. PNNL-14845. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., R.T. Hallen, D.S. Muzatko, and S.R. Gano. 2004. KE Basin Sludge Flocculant Testing. PNNL-14730. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2003

  • Schmidt A.J., and C.H. Delegard. 2003. Updated Volumetric Expansion Factors for K Basin Sludge During Storage. PNNL-14228. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., C.H. Delegard, S.A. Bryan, M.R. Elmore, R.L. Sell, K.L. Silvers, and S.R. Gano, et al. 2003. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing. PNNL-14346. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., M.A. Gerber, C.M. Fischer, and M.R. Elmore. 2003. Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant. PNNL-14245. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2002

  • Delegard C.H., S.I. Sinkov, B.K. McNamara, S.A. Jones, G.S. Barney, A.J. Schmidt, and R.L. Sell. 2002. Critical Mass Laboratory Solutions Precipitation, Calcination, and Moisture Uptake Investigations. PNNL-13934. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Elliott D.C., R.J. Orth, J. Gao, T.A. Werpy, D.E. Eakin, A.J. Schmidt, and G.G. Neuenschwander. 2002. "Biorefinery Concept Development Based On Wheat Flour Milling." In Fuel Chemistry Division Preprints American Chemical Society National Meeting, April 2002, 47, 361-362. Washington, District Of Columbia:American Chemical Society. PNNL-SA-35705.
  • Elliott D.C., R.J. Orth, T.A. Werpy, J. Gao, D.E. Eakin, A.J. Schmidt, and G.G. Neuenschwander, et al. 2002. "Biorefinery Concept Development Based on Wheat Flour Milling." In Bioenergy 2002, edited by John Crockett and Charles L. Peterson, 35. Boise, Idaho:Pacific Regional Biomass Energy Program. PNNL-SA-36480.
  • Fischer C.M., M.R. Elmore, A.J. Schmidt, M.A. Gerber, D.S. Muzatko, S.R. Gano, and B.M. Thornton. 2002. Evaluation of PFP Furnace Systems for Thermal Stabilization of Washed High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items. PNNL-14260. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Poloski A.P., P.R. Bredt, A.J. Schmidt, R.G. Swoboda, J.W. Chenault, and S.R. Gano. 2002. Thermal Conductivity and Shear Strength of K Basin Sludge. PNNL-13911. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., and C.H. Delegard. 2002. Assessment of K Basin Sludge Volume Expansion Resulting from Uranium Corrosion During Storage. PNNL-13786. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., and M.R. Elmore. 2002. Settling Test Using Simulants to Evaluate Uranium Metal Distribution in K Basin Sludge. PNNL-13854. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2001

  • Bryan S.A., C.H. Delegard, A.J. Schmidt, R.L. Sell, K.L. Silvers, S.R. Gano, and B.M. Thornton. 2001. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series II Testing. PNNL-13446. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

2000

  • Bredt P.R., C.D. Carlson, C.H. Delegard, K.H. Pool, A.J. Schmidt, D.B. Bechtold, and J.Y. Bourges, et al. 2000. "Studies of Chemical Processing of K Basins Sludge." In WM '00 Proceedings, February 27-March 2, 2000.. .:Waste Management Conference, Inc. PNNL-SA-32560.
  • Bredt P.R., C.H. Delegard, A.J. Schmidt, and K.L. Silvers. 2000. Testing and Analysis of Consolidated Sludge Samples from the 105 K East Basin Floor and Canisters. PNNL-13341. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Bredt P.R., C.H. Delegard, A.J. Schmidt, K.L. Silvers, B.M. Thornton, and S.R. Gano. 2000. Particle Size (Sieving) and Enthalpy (Acid Calorimetry) Analysis of Single-Pull K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludges. PNNL-13373. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Bredt P.R., J.M. Tingey, and A.J. Schmidt. 2000. Compilation and Integration of K Basin Sludge Particle Size Analysis Data. PNNL-13376. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Delegard C.H., S.A. Bryan, A.J. Schmidt, P.R. Bredt, C.M. King, R.L. Sell, and L.L. Burger, et al. 2000. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges - Series I Testing. PNNL-13320. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Elmore M.R., A.J. Schmidt, K.L. Silvers, B.M. Thornton, and S.R. Gano. 2000. Chemical and Radiochemical Analysis of Consolidated Sludge Samples from the K East Basin. PNNL-13360. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Gerber M.A., A.J. Schmidt, C.H. Delegard, K.L. Silvers, A.B. Baker, S.R. Gano, and B.M. Thornton. 2000. Evaluation of the Magnesium Hydroxide Treatment Process for Stabilizing PFP Plutonium/Nitric Acid Solutions. PNNL-13330. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

1999

  • Schmidt A.J., C.H. Delegard, K.L. Silvers, P.R. Bredt, C.D. Carlson, E.W. Hoppe, and J.C. Hayes, et al. 1999. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. PNNL-12120. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., G.S. Klinger, and P.R. Bredt. 1999. Evaulation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extractions from Ion Exchange Materials. PNNL-12108. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

1998

  • Mong G.M., A.J. Schmidt, E.W. Hoppe, K.H. Pool, K.L. Silvers, and B.M. Thornton. 1998. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and With Hydrogen Peroxide Addition. PNNL-11998. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Pool K.H., C.H. Delegard, A.J. Schmidt, B.M. Thornton, and K.L. Silvers. 1998. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, "Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin". PNNL-12107. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
  • Schmidt A.J., G.M. Mong, E.W. Hoppe, S.O. Slate, K.L. Silvers, and B.M. Thornton. 1998. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Partitioning of PCBs in Dissolver Solution After Nutralization/Precipitation (Caustic Adjustment). PNNL-11997. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Chemical and Biological Process Development

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